Vijaychem Industries

ISO 9001:2008 Certified Company

Zinc Sulphate - Heptahydrate :
Exposure Controls / Personal Protection

The following materials had no OELs on our records
Zinc Sulfate
It is the goal of the ACGIH (and other Agencies) to recommend TLVs (Or their equivalent) for all substances fOr which there is evidence of health effects at airborne concentrations encountered in the workplace. At this time no TLV has been established, even though this material may produce adverse health effects (as evidenced in animal experiments or clinical experience). Airborne concentrations must be maintained as low as is practically possible and occupational exposure must be kept to a minimum. NOTE: The ACGIH occupational exposure standard for Particles Not Otherwise Specified (P.N.O.S) does NOT apply.
Sensory irritants are chemicals that produce temporary and undesirable side-effects on the eyes, nose or throat. Historically occupational exposure standards for these irritants have been based on observation of workers' responses to various airborne concentrations. Present day expectations require that nearly every individual should be protected against even minor sensory irritation and exposure standards are established using uncertainty factors or safety factors of 5 to 10 or more. On occasion animal no-observable-effect-levels (NOEL) are used to determine these limits where human results are unavailable. An additional approach, typically used by the TLV committee (USA) in determining respiratory standards for this group of chemicals, has been to assign ceiling values (TLV C) to rapidly acting irritants and to assign short-term exposure limits (TLV STELs) when the weight of evidence from irritation, bioaccumulation and other endpoints combine to warrant such a limit. In contrast the MAK Commission (Germany) uses a five category system based on intensive odour, local irritation, and elimination half-life. However this system is being replaced to be conSistent with the European Union (EU) Scientific Committee for Occupational Exposure Limits (SCOEL); this is more closely allied to that of the USA.
OSHA (USA) concluded that exposure to sensory irritants can:
cause inflammation
cause increased susceptibility to other irritants and infectious agents
lead to permanent injury or dysfunction
permit greater absorption of hazardous substances and
acclimate the worker to the irritant warning properties of these substances thus increasing the risk of overexposure.
Safety glasses with side shields.
Chemical goggles.
Contact lenses may pose a special hazard; soft contact lenses may absorb and concentrate irritants. A written policy document, describing the wearing of lens or restrictions on use, should be created for each workplace or task. This should include a review of lens absorption and adsorption for the class of chemicals in use and an account of injury experience. Medical and first-aid personnel should be trained in their removal and suitable equipment should be readily available, In the event of chemical exposure, begin eye irrigation immediately and remove contact lens as soon as practicable. Lens should be removed at the first signs of eye redness or irritation -lens should be removed in a clean environment only after workers have washed hands thoroughly.[CDC NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin 59]
Wear chemical protective gloves, eg. PVC.
Wear safety footwear or safety gumboots. eg. Rubber.
Suitability and durability of glove type is dependent on usage. Important factors in the selection of gloves include: such as:
frequency and duration of contact.
chemical resistance of glove material.
glove thickness and
Select gloves tested to a relevant standard (e.g. Europe EN 374, US F739).
When prolonged or frequently repeated contact may occur, a glove with a protection class of 5 or higher (breakthrough time greater than 240 minutes according to EN 374) is recommended.
When only brief contact is expected, a glove with a protection class of 3 or higher (breakthrough time greater than 60 minutes according to EN 374) is recommended.
Contaminated gloves should be replaced.
Gloves must only be worn on clean hands. After using gloves, hands should be washed and dried thoroughly. Application of a non perfumed moisturiser is recommended.
P.V.C. apron.
Barrier cream.
Skin cleansing cream.
Eye wash unit.
Respirators may be necessary when engineering and administrative controls dO not adequately prevent exposures.
The decision to use respiratory protection should be based on professional judgment that takes into account toxicity information, exposure measurement data, and frequency and likelihood of the worker's exposure - ensure users are not subject to high thermal loads which may result in heat stress or distress due to personal protective equipment (powered, positive flow, full face apparatus may be an option).
Published occupational exposure limits, where they exist, will assist in determining the adequacy of the selected respiratory. These may be government mandated or vendor recommended.
Certified respirators win be useful for protecting workers from inhalation of particulates when properly selected and fit tested as part of a complete respiratory protection program.
Use approved positive flow mask if significant quantities of dust becomes airborne.
Try to avoid creating dust conditions.
Protection Factor Half-Face Respirator Full-Face Respirator Powered Air Respirator
10 x ES P1 Air-line*   PAPR-P1
50 x ES Air-line** P2 PAPR-P2
100 x ES ---------- P3 -----------
--------- ---------- Air-line* -----------
100 x ES ---------- Air-line** PAPR-P3
*-Negative pressure demand** - Continuous flow.
The Local concentration of material, quantity and conditions of use determine the type of personal protective equipment required. For further information consult site specific CHEMWATCH data (if available), or your Occupational Health and Safety Advisor.
Local exhaust ventilation usually required. If risk of overexposure exists, wear approved respirator. Correct fit is essential to obtain adequate protection. Supplied-air type respirator may be required in special circumstances. Correct fit is essential to ensure adequate protection.
An approved self contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) may be required in some situations.
Provide adequate ventilation in warehouse or closed storage area. Air contaminants generate in the workplace possess varying "escape" velocities which, in tum, determine the "capture velocities" of fresh circulating air required to effectively remove the contaminant.
Type of Contaminant: Air Speed:
solvent, vapours, degreasing etc., evaporating from tank (in still air). 0.25-0.5 m/s (50-100 f/min.)
aerosols, fumes from pouring operations, intermittent container filling,low speed conveyer transfers, welding, spray drift, plating acid fumes, pickling (released at low velocity into zone of active generation) 0.5-1 m/s (1O0-200 f/min.)
direct spray, spray painting in shallow booths, drum filling, conveyer loading. Crusher dusts, gas discharge (active generation into zone of rapid air motion)
1-2.5 m/s (200-500 f/min.)
grinding. abrasive blasting, tumbling, high speed wheel generated
dusts (released at high initial veloeity into zone of very high rapid air motion).
2.5-10 m/s (500-2000 f/min.)
Within each range the appropriate value depends on:
lower end of the range Upper end 01 the range
1: Room air currents minimal or favourable to capture 1: Disturbing room air currents
2: Contaminants of low toxicity or 01 nuisance value only. 2: Contaminants of high toxicity
3: intermittent, low production. 3: High production, heavy use
4: Large hood or large air mass in motion. 4: Small hood-local control only
Simple theory shows that air velocity falls rapidly with distance away from the opening of a simple extraction pipe. Velocity generally decreases with the square of distance from the extraction point (in simple cases). Therefore the air speed at the extraction point should be adjusted, accordingly, after reference to distance from the contaminating source. The air velocity at the extraction fan, for example, should be a minimum of 1-2 m/s (200-400 f/min) for extraction of solvents generated in a tank 2 meters distant from the extraction point. Other mechanical considerations, producing performance deficits within the extraction apparatus, make it essential that theoretical air velocities are multiplied by factors of 10 or more when extraction systems are installed or used.